“In Defense of the Liberal in the Study of Religion” by Jeffrey Stackert

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University of Chicago Divinity School, Swift Hall

Jeffrey Stackert teaches Biblical Studies at the University of Chicago Divinity School. In this very short article, he makes some important points about the relationship between the study of religion, conservatives, and liberals. I encourage non-specialists [1], whether liberal or conservative, to read this because it is very straightforward and easy to grasp.

Click here to read.

[1] Non-specialist simply means you don’t study this stuff for a living; it is not intended to be pejorative or a demeaning term.

 

“Goddesses in Context” by Julia M. Asher-Greve and Joan Goodnick Westenholz

GoddessesJulia M. Asher-Greve and Joan Goodnick Westenholz. Goddesses in Context: On Divine Powers, Roles, Relationships and Gender in Mesopotamian Textual and Visual Sources. Orbis Biblicus et Orientalis (OBO) 259. Fribourg/Göttingen: Academic Press/Vandenhoeck & Rupprecht 2013, pp. 430, 130,00 €.

*I’d like to express my gratitude to Academic Press and Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht for providing me with a review copy in exchange for my honest opinion.

Julia M. Asher-Greve first incorporated gender theory into ancient Near Eastern studies during her dissertation on Sumerian women (1985). Since then, her work regarding gender has been integral to the developing incorporation of gender theory into ancient Near Eastern studies. Likewise, Joan Goodnick Westenholz (1943-2013) is well-known for her ground-breaking studies of gender, goddesses, and women and her integral role in the founding of Journal of Gender Studies in Antiquity. Coming together, Asher-Greve and Westenholz provide a valuable contribution to the ongoing discussion regarding the power dynamics in Mesopotamian records. Unlike previous studies on the topic, Asher-Greve and Westenholz include more text records and also draw upon visual records as an additional medium of communication and interpretation of history.

Chapter One briefly points out the insufficient value of sex and gender solely as an interpretive paradigm for historical studies, arguing for the flexibility and fluidity in gender, dominion, and deity rank. Following their review of scholarly discourse of the marginalization of goddesses, they aptly note the lack of architectural and visual sources in analysis. Chapter II, written by Westenholz, categorizes religious develops under syncretism (fusion, fission, and mutation) and provides a thorough overview of the evolution in Mesopotamian thought through textual sources. Shifting to visual sources, Chapter III, written by Asher-Greve, focuses on how Ninursaga/Ninmah and Ninlil develop in order to provide direct case studies of major goddesses. Finally, Chapter II, written by Asher-Greve, analyzes Mesopotamian visual representations of deities, namely goddesses, as independent religious media, whilst noting where text and visual intersect, and illustrates how goddesses could be perceived in a variety of manners and depending on context and period. In summary, through their examination of literary and visual Mesopotamian sources, alongside the assumption that goddesses are no ‘gender models’ for women, goddesses maintain a presence over three millennia, albeit in with fluid domains and a progression towards emphasis on their roles as spouses and intermediary figures.

This work is an important contribution to the ongoing discussion of women and the ancient Near East. Methodologically speaking, their focus on the fluidity of goddess character domains and emphasis that goddesses are first and foremost divinities, only secondarily feminine, is important, as it engages more directly with the cognitive environment with which ancient Mesopotamian civilizations resided. Additionally, unlike any previous works on goddesses in ancient Mesopotamia, they work with the visual imagery and present valuable analysis of the development of goddesses through a visual medium and how, at moments, it converges or diverges with the textual traditions. Ultimately this work is indispensable as a contribution to the study of women in the ancient world.

While their work is fantastic, I was quite confused at one moment. Chapter III, titled “Facets of Change” focuses on the changes in conception of two major birthing/mother goddesses, Ninhursaga/Ninmah and Ninlil. With the wide range of deities, it is unclear why Asher-Greve singled out these two deities for analysis. Were more deities explored to illustrate changes in specific goddesses, it would have filled out the chapter substantially.

Overall, Westenholz and Asher-Greve present extremely important and relevant analysis to discourse of goddesses in the ancient Near East. Most importantly, they set an important precedence to take more seriously visual media as a unique communication medium when applying gender theory to ancient Near Eastern history. Without a doubt, this work will be fundamental to any future analysis which applies gender theory to ancient Near Eastern studies. Although most people will not sit and read through this work, it is, nonetheless, an excellent read and source for gender studies in antiquity. I highly recommend it.

“Oracular Law and Priestly Historiography in the Torah” by Simeon Chavel

Simeon Chavel. Oracular Law and Priestly Historiography in the Torah. Forschungen zum Alten Testament 2. Reihe 71. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck, 2014, x + 353 pp., 99,00 €  (sewn paper).

*I’d like to express my gratitude to Mohr Siebeck for providing a review copy in exchange for my honest opinion.

In his most recent monograph, Simeon Chavel (PhD Hebrew University of Jerusalem; currently an Assistant Professor of Hebrew Bible at the University of Chicago Divinity School) explores dimensions of the priestly historiography through what he terms “oracular novella”, originally called “oracular responsa” by Micahel Fishbane. These short stories are a combination of legal innovation and short-story and oracular consultation as means for achieving new law. For each of the four oracular novella (Leviticus 25:10-23; Numbers 9:1-14, 15:32-36, 27:1-11), Chavel explores three dimensions to interpret oracular novellas:  “(1) its internal coherence and poetics, its compositional history, and its tradition history; (2) its specific location within the Priestly history; and (3) its relationship with other texts in the Priestly history and elsewhere in the Hebrew Bible and lore outside them” (257). In all this, he seeks to discover the common, underlying themes and how fit within the composition of the Priestly history.

The first oracular novella he explores is Leviticus 24:10-23, the account of an Egyptian-Israelite cursing the name of God. Identifying the internal coherence of the story, he determines that the texts complexities arise not from the Egytian-Israelite roots of the one who curses, but serve as an ideological function “to explain the disturbing fact that an Israelite could come to offend the person of his deity in the most direct manner” (48). The crime, argues Chavel, is the explanation of God’s name in the fight. And based on the convergence of several telltale indications of Priestly authorship, he theorizes that the oracular novella was written by a single author who “synthesized them into a single coherent oracular novella” (80). The motive is, therefore, to formally express the relationship divine instruction and narrative form. More contextually, the oracular novella, Chavel theorizes, used to exist as the conclusion to a scroll based on how it synthesizes previous elements of Leviticus.

The second oracular novella is Numbers 9:1-14, the designation of a secondary Pesah. Exploring the complexities of the text through inner-biblical references, Chavel determines that the text went through many stages of development. Contextually speaking, it is intended to synthesize the issues of impurity and offerings from Numbers 5-8. Furthermore, the oracular novella is shown to have expanded to include by the “resident alien” and “native-born”. And this expansion of inclusion, along with claims that one who does not observe Pesah will suffer, serve to illustrate the centralized focus rather than the domestic one. Chronologically his analysis theorizes the possibility of this centralization taking place any time betweent he late 7th century BCE and early 5th century BCE.

The third oracular novella, which is the novella about the man gathering wood on Sabbath in contrast to the previous two underwent no growth (Numbers 15:32-36). Because the text stands in unity, with no evidence of composition history, Chavel theorizes that the linguistics differences from it to the first presented oracular novella, Leviticus 24:10-23, indicate a a late date of composition which likely originally was written on its own scroll, similar to a standalone scroll like Ruth or Esther. This extreme case served to promote the significance of Sabbath in ancient Israel.

The fourth oracular novella delves into the inheritance by women in Numbers 27:1-11. Through literary-critical analysis, Chavel illustrates a composition history of the text. This composition history demonstrates that the role of woman inheritance in the text is not a revolution or new idea; rather, “it represents the coalescence of a continuing concern with a persistent legal and social probelm” (213). As for the specific location in Numbers, the texts of Numbers 26:29-34 and Joshua 17:1-6 both support its present location. Furthermore, Chavel draws out how the list of inheritors in Numbers 27:8b-11a are from a different textual strata that clarifies its role in the formation as the daughter receiving “her deceased father’s land out of order and by different mechanism” (241) than the original oracular novella, Numbers 27:1-8a, 11b. The complete novella complicates the text by subordinating concepts from the original into the new by inserting the list portion. Finally, Chavel explores how the oracular novella relates to Numbers 36:1-12, Gileadite sequel to the oracular novella, and the scroll of Ruth.

All in all, the oracular novella shed light on the complex stratification of Priestly history, especially demonstrating the vibrancy of the oracular novella constructing, reconstructing, or developing legalities as narrative climax and how Yahweh’s ongoing inquiry was prized. Chavel wraps up his work by briefly exploring the literary relationship between law and narrative, emphasizing how “Priestly work brings law and narrative into mutual relation more richly, continuously, and organically than do the others” (268). The oracular novellas are one place where this is most evident in Priestly history.

Simeon Chavel’s work is by far one of the most unique in exploring Priesly historiography. His variety of methodological approaches, ranging from narratology, theory of law, philology, and historical analysis serve to propel the validity and strength of his conclusions. Those conclusions, while primarily theoretical in nature, do provide a renewed and more comprehensive view of Priestly historiography and the development of the Pentateuch as a whole. By drawing on the various inner-textual engagements and nuanced tensions within the oracular novellas, he provides reasonable explanation for the oracular novellas and even conjectures certain portions as originally distinct scrolls.

Another valuable aspect of his work, which many may not initially recognize, is a smaller point of his. In a forthcoming article on the legalities of Ruth, Dr. Brad Embry (Regent University), will be exploring the very thing which Chavel briefly engages with. In Chavel’s discussion about the daughters of Zelophad, he says the following: “The story of the rise of the law of female land inheritance – the novella of the daughters of Zelophad in Num 27:1-11 – appears to have served the author of Ruth’s the channel or the glue that brought them all together” (200). This is important because it provides valuable and rare insight into the book of Ruth, insight that will potentially propel forward Megilloth studies.

Although this is the case, it is still a very specialized focus and topic. To most people, this book will not be valuable. Realistically, his work will only be beneficial to people exploring the development of the Pentateuch, and perhaps those exploring the oracular novella, or, as Michael Fishbane terms them, oracular responsa. Without a doubt, Chavel’s work is the most authoritative on the subject, even if it is due to the fact that it is one of the few resources that directly engages with the subject. That said, this is not the sort of book valuable on ones bookshelf; however, for work on the composition of the Pentateuch and relating to any of the oracular novella, Oracular Law and Priestly Historiography in the Torah by Simeon Chavel is absolutely a necessary resource.

“In the Wake of the Goddesses” by Tikva Frymer-Kensky

In In the Wake of the Goddesses, Tikva Frymer-Kensky (1943-2006) explores the role of the goddess and its development through the ancient near east. She holistically approaches the whole of the ancient near east with a focus on the societal views of women based on the mythological expressions relating to women and the role they play in the mythologies. Following this discussion, she approaches the Hebrew Bible’s portrayal of the divine when the goddess is absent, covering the issues of female portrayal in regard to humans and God. Finally, she concludes with discussion of how sexuality and gender is portrayed within the Bible.

Frymer-Kensky, in approaching the subject, is holistic in the sense that she doesn’t purely focus on the mythological accounts. She recognizes that the polytheistic tendencies of ancient Israel’s predecessors paint a backdrop of ancient Israel’s monotheism which, in many aspects, draw out its unique character among the nations. Her critical approach, while challenging many popular stances on the Hebrew Bible, are effective in allowing her to write a book which speaks to any audience, Jewish, Christian, or Muslim. While there is a theological skew towards Judaism, her approach does not demand those results. In a sense, she takes a secular approach to biblical studies with a theological aim, not a theological approach with a theological aims (See Ron Simkins’ Biblical Studies as a Secular Discipline: The Role of Faith and Theology).

In conclusion, Frymer-Kensky’s exploration of goddesses in regard to ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Israel is an excellent choice for any person seeking to understand the influence of Mesopotamian culture and literature on the development of ancient Israel. Except, rather than merely presenting dry information, it is a living text that tells a story, thus making it easy to read. While easy to read, that does not take away from the critical approach and factual arguments of Tivka Frymer-Kensky. Her scholarship sheds light on why the University of Chicago dedicated a volume of Gorgias Precis Portfolios to Tikva Frymer-Kensky, titled “In the Wake of Tikva Frymer-Kensky”.

Click here to purchase In the Wake of Goddesses: Women, Culture, and the Biblical Transformation of Pagan Myth